Evan Elford, OMAFRA New Crop Development Specialist
Melanie Filotas, OMAFRA Horticulture Integrated Pest Management Specialist
At this point in the growing season we typically receive calls from quinoa growers about goosefoot groundling moth (Scrobipalpa artiplicella), tarnished plant bug (TPB) (Lygus lineolaris), quinoa downy mildew (Peronospora farinosasp. Chenopodii) and Passalora leaf spot. These insects and diseases are commonly found each season in Ontario quinoa fields.
Currently there are no registered pest-control products for most insects and diseases on quinoa in Canada. However, Dipel and Bioprotec (Bacillus thuringiensis) are registered for use on some caterpillars in quinoa (i.e. European Corn Borer and Armyworms). However, these products must be applied when caterpillars are actively feeding and are most effective when they are small.
In previous years, caterpillars, in particular goosefoot groundling moth, have led to complete destruction of the crop at some grower sites in the province, so scouting, early identification, and management of the pest is important.
Goosefoot Groundling Moth larvae (caterpillar)
TPB has a wide host range and multiple generations through the season. They feed on reproductive organs of plants and cause mechanical damage. In quinoa, the developing seeds are typically affected and the general sense is that TPB is a leading cause of low harvest index.
Tarnished Plant Bug (TPB) adult
Quinoa downy mildew and Passalora leaf spot are diseases that have been documented over a few growing seasons in Ontario. To date they have only been recorded as minor infections affecting mainly the lower leaves of the plants.
Quinoa downy mildew on quinoa leaves
For more information on quinoa production in Ontario:
OMAFRA Quinoa Crop Profile
OMAFRA Agronomy Guide for Field Crops Pub 811, Chapter 7: ‘Other Crops’
Optimal planting date, row width, and critical weed-free period for grain amaranth and quinoa grown in Ontario, Canada (Nurse, R.E. et al., 2016. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. Vol. 96 No. 3 pp.360-366)
Crop Injury And Yield Response Of Quinoa To Applications Of Various Herbicides (Crop Advances: Field Crop Reports, 2015)
Quinoa Variety Assessment in Eastern Ontario (Crop Advances: Field Crop Reports, 2014)
Keen-what? Quinoa: Things to consider for quinoa production (ONOrganic Newsletter, September 2013)
The weather has been mostly cloudy and very humid for most of the past week. Combined with moisture stress and previous or continued damage from Alternaria, this has led to the development of Botrytis blight. The humid conditions have allowed the lesions of Botrytis blight to spread on leaves in such a way as to develop an Alternaria-like appearance. These two diseases can be easily confused under these conditions. Concentric rings are appearing in the Botrytis lesions (Figure 1), which are usually typical of Alternaria leaf blight. However, Botrytis lesions lack the typical yellow halo that is characteristic of Alternaria (Figure 2), and that is the best way to distinguish them. If Alternaria has been killed by a fungicide it will lose the yellow halo, but the lesions will become dry and often break apart and often partially fall off the plant.
Figure 1. Botrytis blight lesions developing on ginseng leaves. Note the lack of a yellow halo.
As we draw closer to the 2018 hop harvest season, grower reports from across the province suggest the crop is anywhere from one week ahead of normal to one week behind normal depending on cultivar and geographic location/growing zone.
Here is a re-blog of some harvest guidelines posted in 2017:
By Evan Elford, OMAFRA New Crop Development Specialist & Alexandria Verkuyl, OMAFRA Summer Horticultural Research Assistant
As hop harvest approaches each year, questions arise about harvest timelines for specific cultivars grown in Ontario. Since hops are a re-emerging crop in the province, only preliminary information has been collected from replicated trials. Here are a few guidelines and suggestions for planning your hop harvesting schedule this year.
Target 20% dry matter in hop cones. Moisture levels for some cultivars may be optimal at a slightly higher or lower dry matter percentage, but most fall within 20 ± 2% range. By targeting initial harvest at 20% dry matter, larger fields taking more time to harvest or cultivars being harvested over multiple days will hopefully be completed within an acceptable moisture range.
Historical harvest records can help to schedule cultivar-specific harvest windows in your growing area but should always be confirmed with moisture tests. Table 1 depicts harvest timelines over two years for 10 different cultivars grown in a randomized and replicated trial at the Simcoe Research Station, Norfolk County, Ontario. This table can be used as a guideline to better understand when specific hop cultivars may be maturing in your part of the province. Keeping your own harvest records will help fine tune harvest dates in your particular growing region. Table 2 outlines the same cultivars with harvest dry matter, yield in kg/ha after drying and resulting alpha and beta acid ranges.
After an unprecedented response since competition registration opened last week, the Great Ontario Hopped Craft Beer Competition is now 2/3rds full!
The 2019 beer style is New England India Pale Ale (NEIPA).
For more information and to register online visit www.onhops.ca!
Registration is OPEN for the 2019 Great Ontario Hopped Craft Beer Competition!
Visit us at our new website www.onhops.ca for rules, style description, and to register online!
18 spots available – First come first served.
This year’s beer style is New England India Pale Ale (NEIPA).
Judges will adopt the developing guidelines for NEIPA from the BJCP. Entrants will be judged on the following description: 21B Specialty IPA – New England IPA (NEIPA)
The Overall Impression cites the NEIPA as…”An American IPA with intense fruit flavours and aromas, a soft body, and smooth mouthfeel, and often opaque with substantial haze. Less perceived bitterness than traditional IPAs but always massively hop forward. This emphasis on late hopping, especially dry hopping, with hops with tropical fruit qualities lends the specific ‘juicy’ character for which this style is known.”
Important New Changes: This year some new rules and changes have been implemented based on competitor feedback and ongoing administration requirements, including: Continue reading
Lavandin cultivars are in full bloom across the province, while bloom of angustifolia cultivars is starting to wind down. Now is a good time to harvest angustifolias for essential oil. Bundle and bud harvest of lavandins should be winding down, while this would still be a good time to harvest fresh bundles from these cultivars.
With plants in full bloom, now is a good time to compare the size and shape of different plants and determine if some might be mislabelled or off-types. This is especially important if you intend to take cuttings from your plants later in the summer for propagation. Flag any abnormal plants so the cuttings are not mixed up later on. Most of the time when there are abnormal plants it is due to a mix-up at the propagation stage. Occasionally though, a mutant will develop with unique characteristics. Sometimes these can be a source for a new cultivar. Continue reading
Alternaria leaf and stem blight continues to be an issue in the ginseng industry this year. Much of the symptoms occurring now are due to damage earlier in the year, but active disease is still present in some gardens. In these gardens, hot and dry weather has contributed to the development of the disease despite repeated fungicide applications. A lack of control of the disease is usually due to one or more of these factors:
- The plant is stressed
- Spray coverage is poor
- The spray interval is too long for the conditions
- Improper choice of fungicide for the conditions
The severity of the disease this year is likely due to a combination of the heat and the dry conditions causing the plant to be stressed and unable to defend against the disease. Continue reading